Monday, September 30, 2019

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India: The Complete List

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are important places of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is chosen by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.

To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already-classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area. It may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet.

There are 38 World Heritage Sites located in India. These include 30 cultural sites, seven natural sites and one mixed site. India has the sixth largest number of sites in the world.

Criteria for the assessment of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) as per UNESCO’s Operational Guidelines:-

1. to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;

2. to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design;

3. to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared;

4. to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological   ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;

5. to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;

6. to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria.

7. to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance;

8. to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;

9. to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;

10. to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India

1. Ajanta Caves
2. Ellora Caves
3. Agra Fort
4. Taj Mahal

5. Sun Temple, Konark
6. Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram

7. Kaziranga, Assam
8. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
9. Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan

10. Churches and Convents of Goa
11. Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh
12. Group of Monuments at Hampi
13. Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh

14. Group of Monuments at Pattadakal
15. Elephanta Caves
16. Great Living Chola Temples
17. Sundarbans National Park

18. Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks
19. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh

20. Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi
21. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi

22. Mountain Railways of India

23. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, Bihar


24. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh

25. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)
26. Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat

27. Red Fort Complex

28. Jantar Mantar, Jaipur

29. Western Ghats

30. Hill Forts of Rajasthan (Chittorgarh Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Ranthambore Fort, Amber Sub-Cluster, Jaisalmer, and Gagron)

31. Rani ki vav, Patan, Gujarat
32. Great Himalayan National Park

33. Nalanda
34. Khangchendzonga National Park
35. The Architectural Work Of Le Corbusier

36. Historic City of Ahmedabad

37. The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai

38. Jaipur


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