Monday, September 30, 2019

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India: The Complete List

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are important places of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.


A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is chosen by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.

To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already-classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area. It may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet.

There are 38 World Heritage Sites located in India. These include 30 cultural sites, seven natural sites and one mixed site. India has the sixth largest number of sites in the world.

Criteria for the assessment of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) as per UNESCO’s Operational Guidelines:-

1. to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;

2. to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design;

3. to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared;

4. to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological   ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;

5. to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;

6. to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria.

7. to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance;

8. to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;

9. to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;

10. to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India

1983
1. Ajanta Caves
2. Ellora Caves
3. Agra Fort
4. Taj Mahal

1984
5. Sun Temple, Konark
6. Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram

1985
7. Kaziranga, Assam
8. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
9. Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan

1986
10. Churches and Convents of Goa
11. Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh
12. Group of Monuments at Hampi
13. Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh

1987
14. Group of Monuments at Pattadakal
15. Elephanta Caves
16. Great Living Chola Temples
17. Sundarbans National Park

1988
18. Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks
19. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh

1993
20. Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi
21. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi

1999
22. Mountain Railways of India

2002
23. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, Bihar

2003

24. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh

2004
25. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)
26. Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat

2007
27. Red Fort Complex

2010
28. Jantar Mantar, Jaipur

2012
29. Western Ghats

2013
30. Hill Forts of Rajasthan (Chittorgarh Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Ranthambore Fort, Amber Sub-Cluster, Jaisalmer, and Gagron)

2014
31. Rani ki vav, Patan, Gujarat
32. Great Himalayan National Park

2016
33. Nalanda
34. Khangchendzonga National Park
35. The Architectural Work Of Le Corbusier

2017
36. Historic City of Ahmedabad

2018
37. The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai

2019
38. Jaipur

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